一、foreign exchange settlement（结汇）
foreign exchange settlement, also referred to as foreign exchange transactions or fx transactions, is the process of exchanging one currency for another at an agreed upon exchange rate. this involves the purchase or sale of the currency and the settlement of the transaction. transactions are usually completed through the use of either cash or securities, or through a clearinghouse.
二、types of foreign exchange settlement
1. spot transaction（即期交易）
a spot transaction is the purchase or sale of a foreign exchange at an agreed upon rate on the spot or within two days of the transaction. this type of transaction is typically used for short-term needs such as paying wages or importing goods.
2. forward transaction（远期交易）
forward transaction is similar to the spot transaction but the exchange rate is determined for a future date. this type of transaction is often used to secure an exchange rate for future transactions or to manage risk by locking in an exchange rate.
3. swap transaction（掉期交易）
a swap transaction is the simultaneous purchase and sale of two currencies with different delivery dates. this is done to capture the benefits of a exchange rate before the currencies actually settle, and to take advantage of any discrepancies between the spot and forward rate.
4. hedging transaction（对冲交易）
a hedging transaction is done to reduce the risk associated with exchange rate movements. it involves entering into a contract that offsets any potential losses from exchange rate fluctuations. the contract may be for a fixed period of time or for an indefinite period.
5. credit transaction（信用交易）
a credit transaction is a type of transaction where one party agrees to provide another with a loan in a foreign currency. this type of transaction is often used to finance international trade and is normally conducted between a financial institution and a qualified customer.
6. clearinghouse transaction（结算所交易）
a clearinghouse transaction is when two parties agree to exchange foreign exchange but instead of actually exchanging the currencies the parties exchange a third party that assumes the burden of settling the transaction. this type of transaction is often used to reduce the risk associated with foreign exchange transactions.
7. options transaction（期权交易）
an options transaction is a type of agreement that gives the buyer the right, but not the obligation, to purchase or sell a certain currency at an agreed upon exchange rate at an agreed upon date. this type of transaction gives the buyer the flexibility to take advantage of favorable exchange rate movements if they occur.
8. structured transaction（结构化交易）
structured transactions are a type of foreign exchange transaction that is made up of several different components. it allows the parties to tailor transactional terms to fit their specific needs and objectives. these transactions can often be tailored to meet the needs of each party and can involve currencies other than just foreign exchange.
9. electronic transaction（电子交易）
an electronic transaction is a type of transaction that takes place over the internet or other electronic systems. this type of transaction makes use of technology to speed up the processing of a foreign currency transaction and to ensure accuracy in the exchange rate. this type of transaction is often used by banks, brokers and trading companies.
10. delivery versus payment transaction（付款交割）
delivery vs payment (dvp) is a type of foreign exchange transaction in which one party pays for the other party's currency in the same currency. this type of transaction is often used to speed up the settlement process and to make sure both parties receive their payments.